Nuclear Reactions | ન્યુક્લિયર પ્રક્રિયાઓ | Nucleus | 12th science Physics


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Nuclear Reactions
ન્યુક્લિયર પ્રક્રિયાઓ
12th science Physics

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Radioactivity. We've seen it in movies, it's responsible for the Ninja Turtles. It's responsible for Godzilla. But what is it? It's time to learn exactly what nuclear reactions are, and what it is that makes atomic bombs so destructive, not to mention what makes nuclear fusion reactors our best hope for clean energy in the future.

Nuclear Reactions
Nuclear reactions are those reactions where in a nucleus when bombarded with nucleons or other sub-atomic particles, undergoes a change in their composition.
Types of nuclear reactions
Nuclear reactions are broadly classified as nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.
Nuclear fission reactions
The process of splitting of a heavy nucleus into a number of light nuclei with the liberation of tremendous amount of energy and two or three neutrons is called nuclear fission.
Liquid drop model and nuclear fission
According to Bohr’s liquid drop model, a nucleus is always spherical in shape.
A nucleus contains positively charged protons and neutrons which are neutral.
In the stable state, the repulsive force between the protons tries to pull the nucleus apart. This repulsive force is balanced by a strong nuclear force of attraction between the nucleons.
Note: Nuclear force is a short range force which is inversely proportional to the distance between the nucleons.
Whenever slow moving neutrons are made to hit a heavy nucleus, nucleus absorbs one of the neutron. This disturbs the equilibrium between the nucleons.
As a result, the electrostatic force of repulsion becomes more dominant than the nuclear force of attraction resulting in a constriction in the nucleus.
Due to the constriction, the distance between the nucleons increases and the electrostatic force of repulsion increases. This increase in electrostatic force of repulsion deepens the constriction further and eventually the nucleus splits releasing two or three neutrons.
Types of nuclear fission reactions
Nuclear fission reactions are classified as controlled and uncontrolled fission reactions.
Uncontrolled fission reaction
In an uncontrolled fission reaction, all the three neutrons released during the fission reaction bombard with another three U-235 nuclei and release enormous amount of heat energy and nine neutrons. These nine neutrons in turn hit another nine U-235 nuclei and release twenty seven neutrons and heat energy.
This reaction continues as long as U-235 nuclei are present in the fuel.
This reaction can lead to an explosion as enormous amount of heat energy when a U-235 atom undergoes fission reaction.
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